Scoring Podcasts – My Tools

Scoring Podcasts – My Tools

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18 DECEMBER 2017

written by Mike

SCORING PODCASTS

MY TOOLS

 

As podcasts become more recognised, there is room for different styles and genres of audio storytelling. One of the big ones at the moment, at least when you look at the top charts, seems to be scripted dramas and narrated storytelling content.

With podcasts, you don’t have that many tools behind your belt – it’s all about the sound so, in reality, you have three elements to play.

Dialogues

Sound Effects

Music

Each is important and plays a different role; all depending on the project. For example, with a podcast like Casefile, we tend to go with just two of the elements – narration and music. Sure, from time to time we do include extra elements such as recorded interviews, police archive audio, and even reenactments.

However, most of the times the centre of the show is the narration of Anonymous Host and music underscore for the emotional connection. The goal is to create a complete audio experience with just two elements. The listener does not feel that it is either too much or not enough in the mix – balance is the key.

Today I wanted to talk about my tools I use for scoring Casefile podcast. I treat the work as I would with writing music for films therefore if you are looking at tools for creating songs, this post may not be the answer.

 

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Before starting in podcasting, I always recorded and wrote music. I used ‘normal’ recording with microphones, as well as plugins for computer music. I’ve tested many different sequencers and solutions, but in the end, decided to limit my tools and work with a minimalistic setup.

Just like for mixing, I prefer to work with only a handful of plugins but to know them inside out, to understand how far I can push them.

Limitation often offers more freedom than we think.

For some time I used software instruments in Logic, Native Instruments Komplete with 500GB of synths and Omnisphere on top of that. Before writing and recording, I often found myself sitting in front of the screen thinking what I should use as a cue. By having so many options, I was paralysed with choice and too many possibilities – until I decided to simplify the workflow and my system.

I moved everything to ProTools and stopped using Logic altogether, I’ve deleted Native Instruments and got rid of 500GB of synths. I was left with my favourite synth of all time – Omnisphere. From there, I’ve upgraded to Omnisphere 2 and for months just used that for scoring, nothing else.

Surprisingly it gave me freedom and unleashed more creativity than I imagined. Even during script reading I immediately knew what patch I would use for a particular scene, what kind of sound.

Unfortunately, Omnisphere wasn’t enough. It’s an excellent solution for scoring however it missed a vital element of writing music – pianos.

 

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Enter Keyscape.

When Spectrasonics released Keyscape, I watched all the videos and tutorials on it. However, it still took me a long time to purchase it. I wanted to be entirely comfortable working in just one synth – Omnisphere, before opening another one.

In the end, I got Keyscape, and it was one of the best decisions I’ve ever made. For now, these are the tools I use for scoring – Omnisphere for atmospheric sound and general cues and Keyscape for melodies, themes and building blocks for underscore.

I often start in Keyscape; I heard a long time ago that by learning the piano you learn how to play all instruments, I think that’s somewhat true.

Keyscape is often a starting point for creating cues, even if I write simple acoustic piano melody I can always use the MIDI and play it through Omnisphere crazy sounds, making the initial themes virtually unrecognisable.

Another great thing is that by using two products from Spectrasonics I have everything in one window – Omnisphere plugin window supports Keyscape libraries as well as other sounds such as Keyscape Creative.

For now, these tools are more than enough to create amazing scores and themes. The other solution that I could use would be an orchestral synth with possibilities of creating full orchestrated music that sounds as good as Keyscape pianos (I’m looking at you Spectrasonics!)

The take away from this (apart from my obvious love for Spectrasonics products) is that you don’t need much to get working and create great sounding scores. Frankly, sometimes too much choice is more limiting than having one or two solutions that you know better than anything else.

I’m not an expert in creating new patches or making sounds with Omni, but if you ask me to score something, be it a podcast, audio drama or even a film – more than likely I will be able to do it with what I got.

P.S.

I’m not affiliated with Spectrasonics and this is not paid advertising – I just love their products!

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Audio Restoration and Podcasting

Audio Restoration and Podcasting

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10 DECEMBER 2017

written by Mike

AUDIO RESTORATION

AND PODCASTING

 

I want to give you a short intro to audio restoration, what I use it for and how you can use it for podcasting.

There are different kinds of audio restoration jobs – you can use it to ‘clean up’ sound for a court, forensic and police needs. You could restore sound from old movies and bring it up to today’s standards and digital formats.

When something is poorly recorded – noisy, distorted, has a lot of hiss or background noise – you can clean it all up with audio restoration plugins.

What I found is that most content creators who don’t dabble in sound, don’t really pay much attention to it. Let’s leave to the side directors and professional producers, but instead talk about amateur or up-and-coming creators.

It can be a lecture recording, a course, a YouTube video or an independent film. More than likely the issue of sound is left to the end, and only after the recording is done, the producers get the full picture – and it doesn’t sound right.

Fortunately, with today’s technology, not all is lost, and a lot of bad recordings can be salvaged and fixed-up to the decent level. Audiobooks, podcasts and radio dramas are a bit different. It’s all about sound so fortunately the quality isn’t left behind. However, especially for new producers, the beginning will be far from perfect.

It’s usually a cheap USB mic and a spare bedroom that acts as a recording studio and with that comes a range of problems.

But what can you do to fix them?

 

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There are different processes that you can apply to the audio in post-production such as:

Noise reduction

Noise reduction will reduce the background hiss and the constant noise-induced with the pre-amp. It’s the best tool to make the recording sound more professional. However, if you apply too much of reduction, you will the recording sound dull. The hiss usually sits in the higher frequencies so when you cut it out, you will cut the presence – the air that comes with it.

Click removal

The are many different kinds of clicks that can occur during the recording, but the most frequent ones will be mouth clicks and lip smacks. Of course, you can try to manually draw them out, but having a process that gets rid of them automatically will save you a lot of time. The thing to watch out is the transients. You want to reduce the clicks but don’t want to get rid of naturally clicky letters such as ‘k’ or ‘t.’

Pop removal

Even with the pop shield, which should be mandatory during the recording, there will be low-frequency pops that will make it. To get rid of them the best way is to apply a pop removal process. A typical low-frequency cut will also get rid of sounds that suppose to be there, that add the bass to the recording, the emphasis on the voice. Pops are much harder to draw out so you will be much better off using the removal effect but be careful – set the strength too high and you will make the voice sound thin.

De-Esser

‘S’ sounding words and letters are hardest to control, especially if you are dealing with a naturally harsh sounding voice. The best solution is to test and choose a right microphone for voice but for new podcasters that is not always possible. Second best thing is to use EQ and a notch filter to get rid of these frequencies. The third thing is to use De-Esser plugin. It works as a compression, reducing the volume of the ‘s’ sounds, don’t overdo it as you will hear the effects straight away.

You can also use the automation and gain control to lower the words and letters manually, but that takes a lot of time to do.

These are the most common processes, there are a lot more advanced effects that can help to restore and clean up the audio, but start with these and move to the other ones when you are comfortable with the basics.

 

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But where can you get them?

Unfortunately, most sequencers do not come with a range of useful audio restoration effects. The one that I know that has them is Adobe Audition. I cannot vouch for the effectiveness of the software as I don’t use it myself. However, I did hear a lot of good things about it so maybe download a trial version.

The ones I use are the top of the market products from iZotope – RX to be exact. These are costly tools but are the best to do the job and all professionals, especially in post-production work, use them.

Don’t despair though. Download the trial version and start learning, before I invested in iZotope products I used the demo versions for a long time – they come with few limitations but if you are able to work with that, only then make the decision to upgrade to the next level.

If you are still at school, you can also email guys from the iZotope and last time I checked they give 50% discount for students.

Of course, I’m sure that there are other solutions available on the market. Do a diligent research, try out trial versions wherever you can and get to work!

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Starting Your Home Studio

Starting Your Home Studio

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04 OCTOBER 2017

written by Mathew Dunn

STARTING YOUR

HOME STUDIO

 

This article has been contributed as a guest post by Mathew Dunn. Mathew has been playing various instruments for a long time, and he is a self-taught musician. He started MusicAlien.Net to share his experiences and thoughts about instruments and music.

 

Most of us musicians would love to have their home recording studio and luckily for us, as the technology advanced, it is now way easier and cheaper to make your home studio than it used to be.

In this article, I will summarise the essentials you need to set up your home studio and what are the most important things to look for when choosing studio equipment and on top of this I will share with you some tips which may be of help to someone who hasn’t done this before.

One thing I would like to say upfront is that you should not have a spend more mentality when picking your gear. The needed studio equipment has gotten better and better with time and the cheapest things today will in most cases beat what used to be the best 20 years ago which is more than enough to get you started if you are a beginner.

However, if you need more professional gear, then I assume you know exactly what you need it for and you will know how to make a choice. Still, keep in mind that the essentials I discuss below do not have to be the most expensive ones as you should choose equipment that suits your budget and overall needs.

Now let’s go through the most important equipment for your home studio:

 

Computer

This is a no-brainer, but I want to share with you a few tips on how to pick yours. First of all, I don’t know what your preferences, PC or a Mac, Laptop or a Desktop are. Whatever they are, they are fine. And if you are a beginner looking to start simple, then if you are reading this on a computer, that computer is probably good enough to get you started, but I don’t know how far will it take you depending on its power.

Things to consider when choosing your computer are

Ram Size

RAM is your most significant friend as a recording musician. And you should have as much as you can of it. Considering that the RAM sticks are getting cheaper and cheaper this should be no problem. Pretty much any computer which was made in the last ten years will have a motherboard support for 16GB of RAM which is more than enough.

Now if you have 8GB of RAM you don’t have to upgrade to 16 immediately but when you see that your computer needs more of it. It is wise to have some widget on your desktop to notify you of the used RAM, and once you start making more and more complicated tracks on your computer you will notice when it reaches about 90%, and your music editing program(s) begin to lag, then you will know that it is time for an upgrade.

If you have 4GB of RAM, then you will be able to start, but an upgrade will be in order soon down the road once you reach the limits.

CPU

Same goes as with the RAM. Whatever you have now will get you started, but depending on the strength an upgrade might be in order. With CPUs getting more and more powerful it is easier than ever to get one that is good enough for music production. I would go with some CPU that has Quad Core and multithreading as it will give you additional virtual cores.

But today it is a standard for any decent computer to have a Quad Core CPU, so it will have you covered. The stronger the CPU, the faster your music editing program will work, and as long as the CPU has enough power to have the program running without lag, you will do fine.

You will spend most of your time working on your computer, so this makes it the most important element of your studio.

 

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DAW (Digital Audio Workstation)

This is where the magic is going to happen, and it is one of the most critical parts of your studio.

If you don’t know the digital audio workstation or shorter DAW, it is a computer program which you will use to record, mix and edit your music.

There are various DAWs out there, and if you don’t know about them, you should first research them and choose one that works for you. Make sure you select the DAW program that you are going to be able to get comfortable with since it is necessary for you to pretty much master the program (don’t be scared as that’s not hard as it seems).

You should work with the DAW program which can be an “extension” of you so that you can think about the music and not about menus, options, etc. You want to own the tool you are working with and not the other way around.

Now the good part comes in. Pretty much all DAWs will get you started, and you should learn about them and try multiple DAWs. Please do not waste too much time overthinking which program should you choose since all of them will get you started if you are a beginner and as time goes by and experience is piled up you will know if you need to change it.

Depending on the computer you use some of these programs might not be available to you as some like Logic is for Mac only but most of them work on multiple platforms.

These are some of the popular and incredible DAWs you should check out:

Sonar

Audition

Pro Tools

Cubase

Live

Reason

Studio One

A solid audio interface

You will need something to get your analog sounds like keyboards or voice into your computer in the form of a digital sound, and this is where an audio interface comes into play.

You don’t need anything special here. Don’t go around spending your money on those crazy interfaces since a decent one with two channels will do just fine.

You should look for an interface that has microphone preamp, line inputs for keyboards and guitars, stereo out and a headphones out.

Make sure to check that the product you are going to get has good reviews and that it meets your needs and you will do just fine.

 

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You need a quality studio microphone

Every studio needs at least one decent microphone in its possession as the microphone will have everything to do with how your recorded sounds will turn out.

There are three main types of microphones, but you will want to get a condenser microphone. The condenser microphone has always been used for studio recordings because their technology allows them to pick up the audio and convert it into electricity in a much more detailed way.

You shouldn’t spend thousands of dollars on your microphone since most of the cheaper microphones are good enough for any recording. However, you should research the mic you are buying well and read its reviews.

But the technology of condenser microphones has advanced, and there are so many manufacturers because of the increasing demand for this type of microphone that the prices went down over the years.

Unless you need some particular microphone for a specific purpose in your studio, don’t spend top dollar for it. Research your condenser mic thoroughly and go with some option that will fit your budget as most of these microphones will be a great choice.

 

You will need something to listen to your music

You have two options here, and they are headphones and monitors, and it is great if you could have both since they both have their uses.

But if you want to save a little money it is perfectly fine just to get the headphones first. But keep in mind that it is a bit tricky to record and mix using headphones, but it can be done.

Besides, you can always listen to your recordings on other people systems to get the proper reference on how the recording using headphones impacts the production.

It is okay to start with the headphones and acquire monitors later on. But if you do want to get the monitors from the outset you will want the monitors that fit your room, and that fit your budget.

Also do not overthink the choice of monitors since various factors will affect how the audio is perceived by the listener like the room shape, listener’s position relative to the monitors, your DAW, etc.

It is essential to research the monitors you are going to get and check their reviews but be aware that there will always be things you can’t control that are shaping the sound you hear so once you decide which monitors you want just to make the purchase and move on.

 

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Creating is the key

Your primary focus should be on getting started. The creative process will make the magic happen not just the gear so make sure you get the gear you need and don’t waste too much time overthinking it. Once you start and once a certain amount of time passes and the experience is piled up, you will know if it is time for an upgrade or if you need another piece of the ear, etc.

You want to get started. That’s the main thing you should strive for, and everything else will fall in its place eventually. Don’t give up and create every day. Work on what you love, and it will pay off in more than one way.

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Mixing on Headphones

Mixing on Headphones

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14 JULY 2017

written by Mike

MIXING ON HEADPHONES

 

During my studies, one rule that was always passed onto us by the teachers was – never mix on the headphones!

The mix should always be done in an acoustically treated room with expensive monitors. It’s the only way to make the piece sound good in every environment.

After the studies, I joined a private school for music production, taught by working professionals – same deal there. The mix must be done on SSL desks, with Dynaudio speakers in a room designed for a quarter of a million pounds.

“Well, it is what it is,” I thought to myself.

After that, I got a job in a sound department at a movie studio. Eight mixing theatres, two with Dolby Atmos sound. Safe to say – everything sounded fantastic there. I worked with most talented dialogue mixers in the country, real veterans of audio mixing.

The rule – never mix on headphones!

Professional mixes must be done in deluxe rooms with the expensive set-up. Even my editing studio had a surround system of calibrated DynaudiosI got used to that comfy chair and top of the shelf editing and mixing system.

Then, I left my job.

I knew I wanted to go freelance and work from home. The issue was real, I’ve cleaned the dust off my Focusrite interface and Adam monitors and was ready. The problem was that my set up is in the bedroom, no acoustics, no high-end studio design.

Mixing gig was out of the window.

Or was it?

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After 18 months with Casefile (and other projects), I learned that rules could be broken and be shaped.

I’m proud to say that I mix on headphones.

Yes, I said. Get over it.

I figured that most people listen to podcasts on their phones, on cheap ear-in headphones. So number one goal should be to make it sound as good as possible on that platform. Casefile needs a good mix, a good balance for score and narration. I can’t lie, it is tricky, and I still make mistakes. But so far the unique approach worked quite well for the podcast and my production practice.

I do the first edit on speakers. The first edit is cutting out mistakes, working with creative breaks and pauses, making the narration as a whole.

I do the second edit on headphones. This takes place in iZotope Rx, and it is in-depth cleaning process. I’m not able to hear every little lip smack on the monitors and Sony MDR-7506 headphones are brilliant in revealing details.

When I write music, I do it on monitors.

When I mix the cues, it’s all on headphones.

Then the first mix – I do the first run on Sony MDRs. I try to balance the score and narration, but the issue is that these phones are closed-cup.

They cut out external noise and give amazing, however not a real representation of the mix.

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Why not real?

Well, it’s only a small percentage of people who listen to the podcast on these kinds of headphones. Most use ear-ins with their phones. Plus the listening is usually done during the work commute, at the gym or work.

That’s why there is a second pass on the mix. And that’s when I use cheap ear-ins. I have a few pairs as each sounds slightly different and I change them during the mix. I make the adjustments to the score and narration.

And that finalises it.

Yes, I will still check the mix on the monitors, on other mediums but the primary goal is to make it sound good on cheap ear-ins.

There is also an issue of exporting to MP3 format. The mix will sound different when played as compressed MP3 in comparison to what I’ve done in Pro Tools. So I keep that in mind during the mixing process too.

Is it a perfect process? Of course not, but as the saying goes ‘if it sounds good, then it’s good’.

The point I want to make is that times are changing and technological progress means that bedroom producers have now much more power than in the past. Yes, it’s great to have a dedicated room for your work. Acoustically designed for high-end systems. But a laptop and pair of headphones will work too, and it shouldn’t stop you from trying.

Of course, let’s not forget that it’s the mastery of skills that matter the most. Don’t worry about the set up as much, improve where you can but what’s most important – get to work!

To learn more about headphones check out The Big Difference Between DJ Headphones from Home DJ Studio.

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Simple Audio Techniques for Podcasts

Simple Audio Techniques for Podcasts

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30 JUNE 2017

written by Mike

SIMPLE AUDIO TECHNIQUES

FOR PODCASTS

 

Most of the creative projects have three stages:

pre-production

production

post-production

The same principle applies to podcasting. You get planning, recording and post production, and depending on a podcast, each stage will be slightly different. Today I will look at one element of post production process – editing.

Sound editing is a crucial aspect of a well-produced show. It doesn’t matter if it’s a scripted podcast, interview style show or a comedy audition. The complexity of audio editing will depend on the nature of a podcast but let’s have a look at most used functions. This post is titled ‘simple editing’ as I will try to describe tools and solutions that are possible in most audio sequencers. Editing with specialised software such as iZotope products will be featured in the future articles.

What kind of sound editing can you expect while working on podcasts?

Based on my experience with Casefile – a scripted show and multiple of other non-scripted podcasts let me list a few things that should be helpful to you during the process.

Importing files

First of all, you will need to import audio files to audio sequencer of your choice. Most audio will be recorded in 44.1kHz, however, I always convert to 48kHz. If I were in charge of recording, I would also select 48kHz at the source.

It’s a standard for motion picture sound, and it will give you more headroom to work with, better quality.

Once you import the files, you will realise that most will be submitted/recorded as STEREO. If you are recording yourself, then you can do a MONO recording from the start, but working with others, I guarantee that more than often it will be stereo.

MONO – one single audio track

STEREO – two audio tracks, usually panned to left & right channels

If you receive the dialogues as STEREO, use a function to split it into MONO and leave it as a one centre audio track. For the most part, the dialogue should always sit in the centre. Yes, there are exceptions to it, like binaural recordings but these are exemptions from the rule.

Multiple dialogue recordings should be kept on separate audio tracks, don’t stick all of it on just one.

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Grouping & Colours

I always work with colours when it comes to editing. It means colour coding tracks, so you can visually recognise them. With Casefile, the voice of the Host will be green and other audio clips blue. When I was working on other interview-style podcasts, I had person one coloured green, and person two on separate track coloured blue and so on.

You are working with ears and eyes so use it to your advantage.

Markers

Markers are an essential element of your editing process. They will help to you note down any mistakes, important parts of the podcast, musical cues.

For Casefile I tend to use markers to note down musical cues and significant moments in the story. In other podcasts, I used them to mark sections that were possibly getting cut.

Pauses

Creative breaks are a big process when I edit Casefile podcast. I usually leave a long pause during sentences for a dramatic impact or cut the breaks shorter during more tense moments.

To create breaks just move the audio around, but don’t forget to fill the space with a background, room noise for consistency.

For non-scripted podcasts, pauses are also helpful. A few seconds between two people speaking or asking a question will give a listener a chance to catch up. Sometimes a person just speaks too fast and adding a few artificial pauses will help.

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Breaths

How you deal with breaths will depend on the style of the podcast. I always try to minimise them, either by eradicating them (Casefile podcast) or making the volume lower.

Some people say that cutting breaths will make the podcast sound unnatural, I would say that it depends on the show.

If you decide to remove all the breaths from the podcast, you will need to use a tool such as De-breather or Strip Silence. Doing it manually will take too much time.

Uhms and Aahs

It’s easier with scripted podcasts as you won’t have to deal with many ‘filler’ phrases. With live recordings, it won’t be that easy. Most people are not professional speakers and will use some kind of a filler when they speak.

These will need to be cut manually, but make sure you won’t turn the podcast into sounding too fake and robotic

It’s easy to go overboard with the editing so use your ears for better judgement.

Background Noise

Any background noise, in particular between the sentences, will need cutting and replacing with a neutral room tone. Other noise such as hiss and rumble will need special tools like De-Noise. But anything else can be easily cut manually or with functions such as Strip Silence.

Other simple audio editing techniques will depend on the nature of the podcast.

It can include pitching up or down the audio or even slowing it down (or making it faster). It was only a few weeks ago when I had to slow a recording down by few percent as the person speaking was talking a bit too fast. In any of these kinds of treatments, you need to be careful not to induce artificial sounding artefacts and change the sound too much.

Simple editing will be enough if you are working on a hobby project from home. Just listen to it, tidy it all up and make it sound a bit tighter.

When it comes to more complicated productions, you will need to use specialised tools, but I will get to them another time.

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Podcasting and Marketing

Podcasting and Marketing

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09 JUNE 2017

written by Mike

PODCASTING

AND MARKETING

Should I start a podcast?

The question that every marketer asks, at least in the present times.

Why is that?

Well, if you google future of podcasting it’s easy to see that everyone seems to be bullish on the medium. From the Copyblogger’s The Astounding Growth of Podcasting to articles from Forbes and Business Insider we can learn that the podcasting trend is going up and up.

And yet, it is still quite a niche industry.

When I analyse Casefile statistics, over 56% of listens happen in the US, followed by Australia with 15% then UK and Canada + others. Podcasting is growing, but it’s still quite a few years away from becoming an established content medium, like YouTube or Instagram. Hence why I think the time to start one is now.

You can have a look at people like Gary Vaynerchuk and see why he is pushing audio content so much. Love him or hate him, he knows a thing about internet marketing, and he knows how to follow the attention. He knows how to market himself.

Another trend that I noticed is, most of the internet personalities are jumping on the podcasting bandwagon. Go and look at top 100 iTunes charts, see how many celebrities can you can recognise. I bet it’s going to be a few.

 

What does it mean?

It means that if you want to be successful, you should follow what successful people do. Apart from that we also have growth in audiobook industry, and we can already see the spill into podcasting. Only recently Audible announced a 5 million dollar fund for playwrights to write audio dramas. They wouldn’t be investing if they didn’t expect some kind of return.

There is no secret to podcasting; it can help you to establish expertise in the industry. Let’s say you are a graphic designer.

Who will you be able to attract better clients and higher rates?

A designer who works from home and attracts business on word of mouth only?

Or someone who also runs a design blog, podcast, course, book and others?

Podcasting is just another medium that can help you to market the business, to establish the expertise. The difference is that it is still niche with the low barriers to entry. Yes, there is some competition, but not as fierce as in other places on the internet.

It’s getting harder every day, so better not wait for too long. It’s a simple question of, do you think it’s easier to start a popular Youtube channel now versus ten years ago?

Podcasting industry is still not regulated; there’s isn’t a big corporation that rules them all. But with time it will happen, there will be rules, schemes, guidelines. If you start early enough, you can be the one who helps to write the rules, which helps to shape the industry.

So don’t dismiss the medium.

Of course, I want to finish with the disclaimer – podcasting is not for everyone.

Take me for example, I know how it works, I produce a popular one.

Why didn’t I start a podcast myself?

Self-awareness is the key here. If you don’t feel comfortable behind a microphone, then don’t force it. But if you think that you can give it a try, do it.

Best time to start was ten years ago; the second best is today.

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